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The HyperProcess

Hyper itself is a full-fledged, standalone database server (hyperd). Hyper API comes bundled with hyperd together with a utility class (HyperProcess) which allows you to spawn the Hyper database server locally on your machine.

To spawn a Hyper process, use:

from tableauhyperapi import HyperProcess, Telemetry

with HyperProcess(telemetry=Telemetry.SEND_USAGE_DATA_TO_TABLEAU) as hyper:
print(hyper.endpoint)

This starts up a local Hyper database server, and then prints the connection string (endpoint). This connection string describes the used protocol (TCP, domain sockets, ...) and the corresponding information like port numbers. The Connection class can then be used to connect against this endpoint. While the HyperProcess is running,, you can create and connect to as many .hyper files as you want.

After you no longer need a Hyper database server, you should shutdown the HyperProcess. If you call the HyperProcess in a with statement (Python), using statement (C#), scope (C++), or try-with-resources statement (Java), the hyperd process will safely shutdown automatically at the end of the with statement.

Performance best practices

Compared to other database systems, Hyper starts up very fast (in the order of 100 milliseconds). Still, starting up and shutting down the server takes time Hence, you should keep the process running and only close or shutdown the HyperProcess when your application is finished. E.g., when updating multiple tables inside a .hyper file, do not restart the HyperProcess for every table, but instead use the same process for updating all of your tables.

Futhermore, you should only have one instance of Hyper running at any given time. Hyper internally monitors its memory assumption, and makes sure that it only uses up to 80% of your system's RAM memory, such that your overall system stays responsive. If multiple Hyper processes are running at the same time, they might overload the system, and Hyper's internal resource management mechanisms will not be able to counteract this.

Telemetry Data

The HyperProcess can be instructed to send telemetry on Hyper API usage to Tableau. To send usage data, set telemetry to Telemetry.SEND_USAGE_DATA_TO_TABLEAU when you start the process. To opt out, set telemetry to Telemetry.DO_NOT_SEND_USAGE_DATA_TO_TABLEAU.

To help us improve Hyper and justify further investments into Hyper API, you can share usage data with us. Tableau collects data that helps us learn how our products are being used so we can improve existing features and develop new ones. All usage data is collected and handled according to the Tableau Privacy Policy

Locating the hyperd binary

To spawn the hyperd executable, HyperProcess must be able to locate this binary, first. By default, HyperProcess is able to automatically find the hyperd executable bundled inside Hyper API. However, if you are rebundling Hyper API, this logic might fail. In those cases, you can use the hyper_path parameter to explicitly specify the location of the folder (!) containing the hyperd binary (not the path to the binary itself!).

from tableauhyperapi import HyperProcess, Telemetry

HyperProcess(telemetry=Telemetry.DO_NOT_SEND_USAGE_DATA_TO_TABLEAU,
hyper_path="/home/avogelsgesang/development/hyper/build/bin") as hyper:
print(hyper.endpoint)
For internal prototyping

Using the hyper_path, you can also instruct Hyper API to interact with a different version of hyperd. Thereby, you can use Hyper API to quickly script a benchmark or more extensive test cases for your new feature or performance improvement

Process Settings

The behavior of the Hyper process can be customized using a couple of settings. They influence all connections to Hyper. Those settings can be set during startup of the process through the parameters argument of the HyperProcess:

process_parameters = {"default_database_version": "2"}
with HyperProcess(telemetry=Telemetry.SEND_USAGE_DATA_TO_TABLEAU,
parameters=process_parameters) as hyper:
print(hyper.endpoint)

Connectivity Settings

These settings control how Hyper communicates with its clients.

domain_socket_dir

Specifies the directory that Hyper uses for domain sockets. It only has an effect if Hyper uses domain sockets (using domain sockets is the default behavior, see use_tcp_port).

Default value: /tmp

note

This setting has no effect on Windows machines.

The maximum path length for valid domain sockets is limited on many platforms. It is therefore recommended to use a short path as the domain socket directory.

use_tcp_port

If this setting is set to a port number or the special auto value, Hyper will use the TCP protocol to communicate with clients. If auto is passed, Hyper will automatically pick an available port. Otherwise, the passed port number is used. If this setting is set to off, which is the default value, Hyper will use named pipes on Windows and domain sockets on Linux and macOS.

If TCP communication is desired, it is recommended to use the automatic port detection by passing auto instead of an explicit port.

Default value: off

Accepted values: auto, off or a port number between 1 and 65535

Logging Settings

These settings control how Hyper writes its activity logs. Note that these setting controls the activity log of Hyper and not a transactional write-ahead log.

log_config

Can be used to disable Hyper's logging by setting it to the empty string. By default, logging is enabled.

log_dir

Specifies the directory into which Hyper's log files will be written.

log_file_max_count

Specifies how many Hyper log files are kept until the oldest ones are deleted. This setting only has an effect if multiple log files will be created (see: log_file_size_limit). For example, if log_file_max_count is set to 2 and log_file_size_limit is set to 100M, there will be at most two log files with a file size of up to 100 MB containing the most recent log information.

It is not recommended to set the limit to 1, since this can lead to situations in which very little log information is available. This is because the old log file will be deleted immediately when a new log file is started.

When set to 0, the number of log files is not limited.

Default value: 0

log_file_size_limit

Specifies how large a Hyper log file is allowed to grow before logging switches to a new log file. When this setting is set to a value greater than zero, the log files will be suffixed with a timestamp indicating the time at which the logging into this file started. The setting\'s value can be specified in K(KB), M(MB), G(GB) or T(TB) units. For example, you can specify 100M to limit the file size of each log file to 100 MB. A limit on how many log files should be kept around can be specified with log_file_max_count.

When set to 0, the log file size is not limited and no timestamps are added to the log file name.

Default value: 0

Database Settings

These settings control Hyper's database files.

default_database_version

Specifies the default database file format version that will be used to create new database files. Every version builds on the improvements of the previous version(s) and adds some new functionality, like new data types.

Default value: 0

Accepted values: 0, 1 (writing this version is deprecated in favor of version 2 and will be removed in a future Hyper API release), 2, 3, and 4.

note

Newer database file format versions than the initial version 0 are unsupported in older product versions. This means that you can use newer database versions with the latest Hyper API and newer product versions but you cannot open them in older product versions. For example, the database file format version 2 can be opened in Tableau Desktop 2020.4.15 but it cannot be opened in Tableau Desktop 2020.3. The complete compatibility matrix is documented in the version sections below.

Opening a database file with an unsupported Tableau product version will produce an error message similar to:

"There was an error during loading database '[...]/file.hyper': unsupported version 3 (max supported version: 2). To open this database, please update your product. (error code 0AS01)"

version 0

The default and initial database file format version is version 0. It is supported by all product versions. To create a new Hyper database file with this version, set default_database_version=0.

version 1 (deprecated)

Database file format version 1 improves Hyper's file format significantly. It contains a collection of improvements from the years since Hyper's initial release:

  • Hyper will compress database files more efficiently after rows have been deleted. The initial file format was not able to compress data blocks with deleted rows, so the file size increased significantly when rows were deleted.

  • Hyper will process queries on textual data with collations more efficiently.

  • Hyper will detect database files that have been corrupted externally more reliably.

To create a new Hyper database file with this version, set default_database_version=1. Note: Writing file version 1 is deprecated and will be removed in a future Hyper API release.

note

The database file format version 1 is supported by Tableau Desktop/Server 2019.2.10, 2019.3.6, 2019.4.5, 2020.1.1 and newer product versions. It is supported by Tableau Prep 2020.2 and newer versions.

version 2

Database file format version 2 adds support for storing and querying textual data with arbitrary versions of the Unicode collation tables.

To create a new Hyper database file with this version, set default_database_version=2.

note

The database file format version 2 is supported by Tableau Desktop/Server 2020.4.15, 2021.1.12, 2021.2.9, 2021.3.8, 2021.4.4, 2022.1.2 and newer product versions. It is supported by Tableau Prep 2022.3 and newer versions.

version 3

Database file format version 3 supports storing and querying 128-bit numerics. 128-bit numerics support a precision of up to 38 places. Additionally, file format 3 improves compression of all 128-bit data types.

To create a new Hyper database file with this version, set default_database_version=3.

note

The database file format version 3 is supported by Tableau Desktop 2022.4.1 and Server 2023.1 and newer product versions. It is supported by Tableau Prep 2022.4.1 and newer versions.

version 4

Database file format version 4 was introduced to support persisting and reading the new 32-bit floating point type.

Starting with release (#TODO), Hyper uses 32-bit floats for the SQL types real, float4, and float(p) with p <= 24. The types double precision, float, float8, and float(p) with p >= 25 still use 64-bit doubles.

To create a new Hyper database file with this version, set default_database_version=4.

note

The database file format version 4 will be supported by Tableau Desktop/Server/Prep 2024.3 and never product versions.